Continuous Pseudo-Labeling from the Start

Self-training (ST), or pseudo-labeling has sparked significant interest in the automatic speech recognition (ASR) community recently because of its success in harnessing unlabeled data. Unlike prior semi-supervised learning approaches that relied on iteratively regenerating pseudo-labels (PLs) from a trained model and using them to train a new model, recent state-of-the-art methods perform ‘continuous training’ where PLs are generated using a very recent version of the model being trained. Nevertheless, these approaches still rely on bootstrapping the ST using an initial supervised learning…Apple Machine Learning Research