Forward Compatible Training for Large-Scale Embedding Retrieval Systems

In visual retrieval systems, updating the embedding model requires recomputing features for every piece of data. This expensive process is referred to as backfilling. Recently, the idea of backward compatible training (BCT) was proposed. To avoid the cost of backfilling, BCT modifies training of the new model to make its representations compatible with those of the old model. However, BCT can significantly hinder the performance of the new model. In this work, we propose a new learning paradigm for representation learning: forward compatible training (FCT). In FCT, when the old model is…Apple Machine Learning Research