Improvements to Embedding-Matching Acoustic-to-Word ASR Using Multiple-Hypothesis Pronunciation-Based Embeddings

In embedding-matching acoustic-to-word (A2W) ASR, every word in the vocabulary is represented by a fixed-dimension embedding vector that can be added or removed independently of the rest of the system. The approach is potentially an elegant solution for the dynamic out-of-vocabulary (OOV) words problem, where speaker- and context-dependent named entities like contact names must be incorporated into the ASR on-the-fly for every speech utterance at testing time. Challenges still remain, however, in improving the overall accuracy of embedding-matching A2W. In this paper, we contribute two methods…Apple Machine Learning Research