Learning to Reason with Neural Networks: Generalization, Unseen Data and Boolean Measures

his paper considers the Pointer Value Retrieval (PVR) benchmark introduced in [ZRKB21], where a `reasoning’ function acts on a string of digits to produce the label. More generally, the paper considers the learning of logical functions with gradient descent (GD) on neural networks. It is first shown that in order to learn logical functions with gradient descent on symmetric neural networks, the generalization error can be lower-bounded in terms of the noise-stability of the target function, supporting a conjecture made in [ZRKB21]. It is then shown that in the distribution shift setting, when…Apple Machine Learning Research