Never-ending Learning of User Interfaces

Machine learning models have been trained to predict semantic information about user interfaces (UIs) to make apps more accessible, easier to test, and to automate. Currently, most models rely on datasets that are collected and labeled by human crowd-workers, a process that is costly and surprisingly error-prone for certain tasks. For example, it is possible to guess if a UI element is “tappable” from a screenshot (i.e., based on visual signifiers) or from potentially unreliable metadata (e.g., a view hierarchy), but one way to know for certain is to programmatically tap the UI element and…Apple Machine Learning Research