Pre-trained Model Representations and their Robustness against Noise for Speech Emotion Analysis

Pre-trained model representations have demonstrated state-of-the-art performance in speech recognition, natural language processing, and other applications. Speech models, such as Bidirectional Encoder Representations from Transformers (BERT) and Hidden units BERT (HuBERT), have enabled generating lexical and acoustic representations to benefit speech recognition applications. We investigated the use of pre-trained model representations for estimating dimensional emotions, such as activation, valence, and dominance, from speech. We observed that while valence may rely heavily on lexical…Apple Machine Learning Research